by Joel Griffiths (Food & Water Journal, Summer 1998)
For nearly 50 years, the U.S. government and media have been telling the public that fluoride compounds (generally referred to simply as "fluoride") are safe and beneficial chemicals that reduce cavities -especially in children. Manufacturers add it to toothpaste and munici-palities put it in the public's drinking water. But fluoride has another side that the government never mentions. It is a toxic industrial pollutant.
For decades, U.S. industry has rained heavy doses of waste fluoride on people. By the Environmental Protection Agency's last estimate, at least 155,000 tons a year are released into the air by US industrial plants. Emissions into lakes, rivers and oceans are estimated to be as high as 500,000 tons a year.
If this increase in fluoride dose were proved harmful, the impact on industry would be major. The nation's air is contaminated by fluoride emissions from the production of iron, steel, aluminum, copper, lead, and zinc; phosphates (essential for agricultural fertilizers); plastics; gasoline; brick, cement, glass, ceramics, and other products made from clay; coal-burning electrical power plants and uranium processing.
As for water, the leading industrial fluoride polluters are the producers and processors of glass, pesticides and fertilizers, steel and aluminum, chemicals and metals copper and brass, titanium, superalloys, and refractory metals for military use.
Industry and government have long had a powerful motive for claiming that fluoride is safe. But maintaining this position has not been easy since fluoride is one of the most toxic substances known. "Airborne fluorides, reports the U.S. Department of Agriculture, "have caused more worldwide damage to domestic animals than any other air pollutant." Evidence that industrial fluoride has been killing and crippling human beings has existed at least since the 1930s.
Of the highly toxic elements that are naturally present throughout the earth's crust-such as arsenic, mercury and lead-fluorine is by far the most abundant. Normally, only minute amounts of these elements are found on the earth's surface, but industry mines vast tonnages-none in greater quantity than fluorine, which is most often found in the form of calcium fluoride.
As early as 1850, fluoride emissions from the iron and copper industries poisoned crops, livestock, and people. By the turn of the century, lawsuits and burdensome regulations threatened the existence of these industries in Germany and England.
In 1933, the world's first major air pollution disaster struck Belgium's Meuse Valley. Several thousand people became violently ill and 60 died. Kaj Roholm, the world's leading authority on fluoride hazards, placed the blame on airborne fluoride emissions.
It was abundantly clear to both industry and government that U.S. industrial expansion would necessitate releasing millions of tons of waste fluoride into the envirorment. It was equally clear that U.S. industrial expansion would be accompanied by complaints and lawsuits over fluoride damage on an unprecedented scale.
Liability into Asset
During the industrial explosion of the 1920s, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) was under the jurisdiction of Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon, a founder and major stockholder of the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa). In 1931, a PHS dentist named H. Trendley Dean was dispatched to remote towns in the West where drinking water wells contained high concentrations of natural fluoride. His mission: to determine how much fluoride people could tolerate without sustaining obvious damage to their teeth. Dean found that teeth in these high-fluoride towns were often discolored and eroded, but he also reported that they appeared to have fewer cavities than average.
The University of Cincinnati's Kettering Laboratory, funded largely by top fluoride emitters such as Alcoa, quickly dominated fluoride safety research. A book by Kettering scientist (and Reynolds Metals consultant) E.J. Largent was admittedly written in part to "aid industry in lawsuits arising from fluoride damage." Nonetheless, the book became a basic international reference work.
In 1939, Alcoa-funded scientist Gerald J. Cox was one of the first to observe that the "present trend toward complete removal of fluoride from water and food may need some reversal." It was Cox who proposed that the "apparently worthless by-product" might reduce cavities in children. Cox fluoridated lab rats, concluded that fluoride reduced cavities and declared flatly: "The case should be regarded as proved."
In 1939, the first public proposal that the U.S. should fluoridate its water supplies was made, not by a doctor, or dentist, but by Cox, an industry scientist working for a company threatened by fluoride damage claims.
Undoubtedly, most proponents were sincere in their belief that the procedure was safe and beneficial.
Nonetheless, their unquestioning endorsement of fluoridation made possible a master public relations stroke. If fluoride could be introduced as a health enhancing substance that should be added to the environment for the children's sake, those opposing it would look like quacks and lunatics.
Alcoa Foils Accountability
The name of the company with the biggest stake in fluoride was Alcoa -whose name is stamped all over the early history of water fluoridation. By 1938, the aluminum industry (which then consisted solely of Alcoa) was placed on a wartime schedule. During World War II industry's fluoride pollution increased sharply because of stepped-up production of Alcoa aluminum for fighters and bombers. Fluoride was the aluminum industry's most devastating pollutant.
Following the war, hundreds of fluoride damage suits were filed around the country against producers of aluminum, iron and steel, phosphates, and chemicals. Most of the lawsuits, particularly those claiming damage to human health, were settled out of court, thus avoiding legal precedents. In a rare exception, a federal court found in Paul M. and Verla Martin v. Reynolds Metals (1955) that an Oregon couple had sustained "serious injury to their livers, kidneys and digestive functions" from eating "farm produce contaminated by [fluoride] fumes" from a nearby Reynolds aluminum plant.
Alcoa and six other metals and chemical companies joined with Reynolds as "friends of the court" to get the decision reversed. Finally, in a time-honored corporate solution, Reynolds mooted the case by buying the Martins' ranch for a hefty price.
"Friends" of Children
The postwar casualties of industrial fluoride pollution were many -from forests to livestock to farmers to smog stricken urban residents -but national attention had been diverted by fluoride's heavily publicized new image. In 1945, shortly before the war's end, water fluoridation emerged with the full force of the federal government behind it.
In that year, two Michigan cities were selected for an official "15-year" comparison study to determine if fluoride could safely reduce cavities in children, and fluoride was pumped into the drinking water of Grand Rapids.
In 1946, despite the fact that the official 15-year experiment in Michigan had barely begun, six more U.S. cities were allowed to fluoridate their water. In 1947, Oscar R. Ewing, a long-time Alcoa lawyer, was appointed head of the Federal Security Agency, a position that placed him in charge of the Public Health Service. Under Ewing, a national water fluoridation campaign rapidly materialized, spearheaded by the PHS. Over the next three years, 87 additional cities were fluoridated. The two-city Michigan study (the only scientifically objective test of fluoridation's safety and benefits) was abandoned before it was half over.
The Father of All Spin Doctors
The government's official reason for this unscientific haste was "popular demand." This enthusiasm was not really surprising, considering Oscar Ewing's public relations strategist for the water fluoridation campaign was none other than Sigmund Freud's nephew Edward L. Bernays.
Bernays, also known as the father of public relations, pioneered the application of his uncle's theories to advertising and government propaganda. The government's fluoridation campaign was one of his most enduring successes.
In his 1928 book, Propaganda, Bernays expounded on "the mechanism" that controls the public mind. "Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society," Bernays wrote, "constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.... Our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of."
Almost overnight, under Bernays' mass mind-molding, the popular image of fluoride -which at the time was widely sold as rat and bug poison-became that of a beneficial provider of gleaming smiles, absolutely safe, and good for children.
The prospect of the government mass-medicating water supplies with a well-known rat poison to prevent a non-lethal disease flipped the switches of skeptics across the country. But, under Bernays' spell, fluoride's opponents were permanently engraved on the public mind as crackpots and right-wing loonies.
In 1950, the PHS officially endorsed fluoridation. Since then, two-thirds of the nation's reservoirs have been fluoridated and about 143,000 tons of fluoride are pumped in yearly to keep them that way. Today, companies forced to reduce their fluoride emission can even recoup some of their expense by selling fluoride wastes to cities for water fluoridation.
In 1972, the newly formed EPA surveyed atmospheric polluters and reported: "the fluorides currently emitted [by industry] may damage economic crops, farm animals... and construction [i.e. buildings, statuary and glass]...." Nonetheless, the report concluded that "the potential to cause fluoride effects in man is negligible."
Another EPA report confirmed that, "Fluoride emissions ... do have adverse effects on livestock and vegetation" but insisted that "fluoride emissions from primary aluminum plants have no significant effect on human health." In other words: The stuff withers plants, cripples cows, and even eats holes in stone, but it doesn't hurt people.
conclusions and recommendations had been deleted.
Whenever new scientific evidence threatens fluoride's protected pollutant status, the government immediately appoints a commission -typically composed of veteran fluoride defenders and no opponents. Usually, these commissions dismiss the new evidence and reaffirm the status quo.
In 1983, however, a PHS panel of "world-class experts" reviewed the safety data on fluoride in drinking water and was surprised to discover that much of the vaunted evidence of fluoride's safety barely existed. The panel recommended caution, especially in regard to fluoride exposure for children.
But when Surgeon General C. Everett Koop's office released the official report a month later,the panel's most important
Brushing Your Teeth with industrial Waste
These days, it's hard to find any toothpaste I that doesn't contain fluoride. Most brands contain fluoride compounds (stannous fluoride, sodium monfluorophosphate) as the main active ingredient. Most brands limit the amount of fluoride compounds to .15 percent (weight by volume of fluoride ion) and caution parents not to use these cleaners on children younger than 6 years.
Fluoride toothpaste is considered a poison. Small type on all brands now warns that if children under six swallow as much as "a pea-sized amount" of fluoridated paste, parents should contact the nearest "poison
Some brands that are clearly marketed for children (with brightly colored boxes, friendly looking cartoon figures, and "bubblegum" flavors) contain .72 percent fluoride -nearly five times higher than adult brands.
Instead, the government substituted this blanket statement: "There exists no directly applicable scientific documentation of adverse medical effects at levels of fluoride below 8 ppm [parts per million]."
The panel's final draft had firmly recommended that "the fluoride content of drinking water should be no greater than 1.4-2.4 ppm for children up to and including age nine because of a lack of information regarding fluoride effect on the skeleton in children (to age nine), and potential cardiotoxic effects [heart damage]."
In 1985, basing its action on the Surgeon General's altered report, the EPA raised the amount of fluoride in drinking water from 2.4 ppm for children and everybody else.
Bones of contention
Between 1990-92, eight different epidemiological studies suggested that water fluoridation may have increased the rate of bone fractures in females and males of all ages across the U.S. A 1992 study in the journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) found that "low levels of fluoride may increase the risk of hip fracture in the elderly."
Since 1957, the bone fracture rate among male children and adolescents has increased sharply in the U.S. according to the National Center for Health Statistics. The National Research Council (NCI) reports that the U.S. hip fracture rate is now the highest in the world. "Clearly," JAMA editorialized in 1991, "it is now appropriate to revisit the issue of water fluoridation."
Evidence that fluoride is a carcinogen has cropped up since at least the 1940s. A 1956 federal study found nearly twice as many bone defects (of a type considered possibly pre-malignant) among young males in the fluoridated city of Newburgh, New York.
In 1977, congressional hearings revealed that the government had never cancer-tested fluoride and the NCI was ordered to begin an investigation. The study, completed in 1989 - 12 years later - found 'equivocal evidence" that fluoride caused bone cancer in male rats. The NCI found that nationwide evidence "of a rising rate of bone and joint cancer ... was seen in the fluoridated counties but not in the non-fluoridated counties."
A new commission, chaired by venerable fluoridation proponent and PHS official Frank E. Young, was empaneled to respond to the NCI's alarming findings. The commission concluded that it could find no evidence establishing an association between fluoride and cancer in humans." As for the evidence on bone fractures, the commission merely stated, "further studies are required."
William Marcus, an EPA senior science adviser and toxicologist, maintains that "fluoride is a carcinogen by any standard we use. I believe EPA should act immediately to protect the public, not just on the cancer data, but on the evidence of bone fractures, arthritis, mutagenicity, and other effects."
"The level of fluoride the government allows the public is based on scientifically fraudulent information and altered reports," charges Robert Carton, a former EPA scientist. "People can be harmed simply by drinking water," Carton warns.
Does fluoridation reduce cavities in children? Over the years, many health professionals -especially abroad have decided the beneficial effects of fluoride are mostly hokum; but open debate has been stifled, if not strangled.
"The level of fluoride the government allows the public is based on scientifically fraudulent information and altered reports. People can be harmed simply by drinking water."
- Robert Carton, former EPA Scientist
During the early 1980s, New Zealand's most prominent fluoridation advocate was John Colquhoun, the country's chief dental officer. He styled himself an "ardent fluoridationist" until he tried to gather statistics to bolster the claim that fluoride was a boon to dental health.
"I observed that ... the percentage of children who were free of dental decay was higher in the unfluoridated part of most health districts in New Zealand," Colquhoun reported. The national health department refused to allow Colquhoun to publish his findings and he was encouraged to resign.
In 1990, Colquhoun warned that "the harmful effects of water fluoridation are more real than is generally admitted, while the claimed dental benefit is negligible."
Earth Island Journal, Spring 1988.
Fluoride: Where Does It Come From? What Does It Do?
Fluoride comes from fluorine, an elemental gas that Webster's describes as pale, yellowish, flammable, irritating, and toxic.
In 1977, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published the following information on fluorine: "Fluorine and some of its compounds are primary irritants of skin, eyes, mucous membranes, and lungs. Thermal or chemical burns may result from contact.... Even when they involve small body areas (less than three percent) [fluoride] can cause... poisoning by absorption of the fluoride through the skin." Brief exposure to inhaled fluorine can cause "sore throat, chest pain, irreversible damage to the lungs and death. Gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting diffuse abdominal cramps and diarrhea can be expected. Large doses produce central nervous system involvement with twitching of muscle groups..., convulsions and coma."
Fluorine is the active ingredient in Sarin (the nerve gas used to deadly effect in a March 1995 Tokyo subway attack) and in Flusilazole (a fungicide that, in the early '90s, caused crop damage and human ailments in 40 states).
"Hydrogen fluoride, hydrofluoric acid and its salts are used in the production of organic and inorganic fluorine compounds such as fluorides and plastics; as a catalyst, in the petroleum industry; and as an insecticide..." the NIOSH report continues." It is utilized in the aluminum industry, in separating uranium isotopes, in cleaning cast iron, copper and brass.... Fluorides are used as an electrolyte in aluminum manufacture, in smelting nickel, copper, gold and silver, as a catalyst for organic reactions, a wood preservative..., a bleaching agent for cane seats, in pesticides, rodenticide, and as a fermentation inhibitor. They are utilized in the manufacture of steel, iron, glass, ceramics, potters enamels, in castings for welding rods, and in cleaning graphite, metals, windows and glassware. Exposure to fluorides may also occur during preparation of fertilizer from phosphate rock."
NIOSH noted that elemental fluorine is also used "in the conversion of uranium tetrafluoride to uranium hexafluoride, in the synthesis of organic and inorganic fluorine compounds and as an oxidizer in rocket fuel." Today, compounds made with this chemical can be found in everyday products ranging from Teflon and Freon to toothpaste and baby food.
Fluorides are industrial waste products created in the production of aluminum, phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers.
Some 55 years after DuPont began producing uranium hexafluoride for the Manhattan Project, the company still heavily invests in fluorine. DuPont uses it to make a number of consumer products, including Tedlar polyvinyl fluoride film and Viton fluorocarbon rubber.